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【午夜之子】 萨曼·鲁西迪

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译序
        如果要推选一位在二十世纪八九十年代的世界文坛上最引起轰动的作家,那么,肯定非英国的萨曼·鲁西迪莫属了。
        萨曼·鲁西迪在文学上的成就是有目共睹的,他是当今英国文坛上的领军人物,被誉为“后殖民”文学的“教父”。三十余年来,他佳作迭出,共出版了十部长篇小说和三部短篇小说集,还有两部儿童作品及十余部非小说作品,几乎每一部作品都引起了文坛的重视。他的作品获得过英国以及美、法等国许多重要的文学奖项。是《午夜之子》让他获得了国际声誉,使他和加西亚·马尔克斯、米兰·昆德拉和君特·格拉斯等世界级文学大师并驾齐驱。这部五百余页的巨作于一九八一年出版后,便好评如潮。《纽约书评》称它是“这一代人英语世界出版的最重要的书籍之一”。《伦敦书评》认为它是“印度对英语小说最新、最出色的贡献”。《泰晤士报》有人撰文说“自从阅读过《百年孤独》以来,还从来没有其他小说像它这样令人惊叹”。它连续获得了布克奖、詹姆斯·泰德·布莱克纪念奖、英国艺术委员会文学奖和美国的英语国家联合会文学奖。一九九三年,该书又荣获为纪念布克奖设置二十五周年而颁发的大奖——“特别布克奖”。一九九九年,美国著名的兰登书屋评选出一百部二十世纪最佳英语小说,该书名列其中。二○○八年,该书又荣获为纪念布克奖设置四十周年特设的“最佳布克奖”。
《午夜之子》之所以会引起如此大的轰动,一是因为其题材独特,场面恢宏。它以印度次大陆为背景,内容涉及印巴分治前后的政治动乱、社会变革、宗教纠纷等复杂的现象;鲁西迪以文学的语言再现了这段历史的内涵,通过一个家族的故事和一个人的遭遇折射出这个“后殖民”的时代。二是作者的想象力丰富,他突破了关于小说形式的传统观念,将现实和虚构、小说和历史糅合在一起,在现实的社会政治讽刺中,加入了奇特的幻想,把神话、寓言、通俗文化、社会现实和历史事件结合在一起,小说情节曲折多变,可读性非常强。
        鲁西迪在《午夜之子》一书中采用的是印度史诗如《摩诃婆罗多》《罗摩衍那》中讲述故事的传统方式,让主角萨里姆·西奈在走向人生道路终点之前向一个名叫博多的女人讲述自己的家史。书中时间跨度长达六十二年,覆盖的地域包括克什米尔、德里、孟买、巴基斯坦和孟加拉国等。这半个多世纪在印度次大陆发生的种种重大政治事件,例如一九一九年四月英军在阿姆利则对手无寸铁的印度人的大屠杀(死伤一千五百余人)、印度独立前的宗教冲突、印巴分治、中印边界冲突、巴基斯坦政变、孟加拉战争、英迪拉·甘地的铁腕统治等无不包含书中。鲁西迪将这些重要的历史事件同主角的经历巧妙地结合在一起,小说多处涉及印度次大陆文化传统中的宗教、迷信、神话传说和风俗习惯,对印度次大陆从英国殖民地向独立国家转化过程中的种种问题进行了探索。在描写次大陆社会变革、政治动乱的过程中,对政治的黑暗极尽调侃之能事,对当权者进行了辛辣的讽刺,尤其是对英迪拉·甘地政府实行的紧急状态法进行了无情的抨击。为此该书曾一度被执政的印度国大党禁止发行。
有人说,魔幻和印度历史永远是鲁西迪作品中不可缺少的内容。在本书中,预言、征兆、特异功能等离奇的内容既使小说蒙上了印度传统文化中常见的神秘色彩,又带有强烈的政治讽刺意味。作者通过“午夜之子”这一具有特异功能的群体以及如尼赫鲁的贺信等种种虚构,将萨里姆的成长与和他同时诞生的国家的命运联系在一起。印度本身是一个文化传统丰富、种族宗教关系极其复杂的国家。鲁西迪在全书中使用了大量有关印度传统文化的典故,其中不少都与印度教、伊斯兰教有关。例如:被调包的孩子名叫湿婆,这是印度教中司毁灭、创造、生殖和舞蹈的主神的名字,而另一位午夜之子——女巫婆婆帝用的便是神话中湿婆的妻子雪山神女的名字。护士的调包,使血统是英印混血儿的萨里姆进入穆斯林家庭,穆斯林富商的骨血却流落到印度教信徒的街头艺人中,造成了宗教、文化、身份上的错乱。鲁西迪尽管在小说中大量进行了虚构,但其中的大多历史事件完全真实,这种将一个国家的命运及其历史变革折射到一个家族、一个孩子的经历之上的叙事手法十分巧妙。作者故意夸大某些器官的特殊功能,如书中的鼻子和膝盖,作为萨里姆和湿婆两人的象征,在书中起着重要的作用,其想象力的丰富令人惊叹。
        鲁西迪借用了印度史诗中的叙事方式,即由主角讲述故事,这使全书节奏流畅,行文生动,富有民间口语文学的韵味。它时而离题万里,时而回归主题,枝叶繁茂,令人眼花缭乱。书中个人生活与历史事件、现实与虚构结合得天衣无缝。鲁西迪出生于印度穆斯林家庭,又在英国受教育,这种多元文化的背景使他具有独特的视角,能从全新的视点来切入到印度独立前后的现实之中,以全新的角度来阐述古老的文明,探讨印度次大陆在摆脱殖民统治之后的艰辛历程。不妨说,萨里姆的遭遇也正是印度这一新国家独立后成长的艰难历程的反映。
        鲁西迪对英语的运用达到了出神入化的地步,他在这方面的成就完全可以和十九世纪的大师狄更斯、萨克雷等媲美。英国著名作家普雷切特在《纽约客》上撰文说:“印度产生了一位伟大的作家……一位滔滔不绝地讲故事的大师。”他的语言灵活风趣,丰富多彩,可说是色香味俱全。例如:书中反复使用了印度国旗上的绿色和橘黄色,克什米尔天空的蓝色,再加上黑夜的黑色。又反复将食品如酸辣酱的味道和人物的感情或者故事的转换联系起来。另外,我们在故事中还可以看到大量巧妙的比喻和双关语,即以各章的标题而论,其中就有好几处一语双关,例如:《多头妖怪》中,“多头妖怪”既指以进行种族宗教迫害牟利、以印度教中多头神罗婆那来命名的黑帮,同时又有“群氓”之意,指很容易受到煽动的芸芸众生。《引流和沙漠》中,“引流”一词指医学上对鼻腔等器官的疏通,同时又有“消耗殆尽”之意,指国家的力量、军队的斗志以及个人的精力等消耗一空。此外,毒蛇的内容在书中反复出现,德哥斯塔被警察追捕时被蛇咬死;萨里姆病危时,靠蛇毒救治过来;在《蛇梯棋》一章中,萨里姆将蛇和梯子看成是人生中祸与福的象征,这两者保持平衡,又互相转化,这种辩证的关系与我国老子所说的“祸兮福所倚,福兮祸所伏”很接近。而在《萨巴尔马提司令的指挥棒》一章中,萨里姆的报复便是模仿蛇的出击。书中还反复使用了“一千零一”这个数字,除在某些场合是实指外,还因为它在英语中有“无数”“非常多”之意。同时,鲁西迪在小说中还使用了意识流手法,借助梦境和生病时的昏迷状态来表达人物的内心世界和对未来的预感。此外,鲁西迪还不只一次地使用电影中的技巧,如人物的特写镜头、近景和远景的描绘,等等。
        作为四大文明古国之一的印度,历史悠久,文化丰富多彩,而宗教对生活在印度次大陆的人尤其具有极为重要的意义。本书大量涉及印度教和伊斯兰教方面的内容。印度教中神话传说的丰富令我们难以想象,正如鲁西迪在小说中所说的,印度教中的神灵就有三亿三千万个,其中一些主神都有各种各样的化身。伊斯兰教在印度次大陆也具有极为重要的影响,书中大量篇幅反映了穆斯林的风俗习惯,不只一处引用《古兰经》。这对翻译增加了难度。为了尽可能准确地将全书内容介绍给中国读者,在翻译过程中参阅了大量有关印度次大陆历史、文化和宗教方面的书籍。书中人名、地名和神祇的名称尽可能采用《宗教词典》《高级印度史》《印度史话》《印度各邦历史文化》《巴基斯坦简史》等书中通行的译法。书中大量有关食物、衣着和其他风俗习惯的词语源自印地语、乌尔都语或者孟加拉语,这些词语就连《牛津词典》和《韦氏三版国际词典》等大型英语辞书也不见收录。为了解决这方面的问题,只能转请国外的友人向具有印度或巴基斯坦文化背景的朋友请教。在这方面,要特别感谢的是曾执教于英国威尔士大学(University of Wales)、卡迪夫大学(College of Cardiff)并数度来华且在厦门大学讲学四载的英国文学专家查尔斯·泰扎克(Charles Tyzack)。翻译一年多来,我同他通过电子邮件经常联系,他帮助我解决了不少困难的问题。此外,还有执教于澳大利亚麦考瑞大学(Macquarie University)的钱彦博士,她为我向她的印度朋友请教了一些特别的词语;我的研究生魏存茂为我从网上下载了鲁西迪小说中经常使用的一些印度次大陆特有的词汇,对我的翻译非常有用;我的另一位学生王晨曦为我借来了最新版本的《古兰经》,使我的引文能够准确无误。在此一并表示感谢。至于译文中存在的问题,敬请读者不吝指教。


刘凯芳
于厦门大学

【午夜之子】中文版 mobi 格式:下载午夜之子

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  • Great Tales From English History, Volume III [Audiobook]

    Great Tales From English History, Volume III: The Battle of the Boyne to DNA [Audiobook] by Robert Lacey
    English | February 6, 2008 | ASIN: B0013VCC6A | M4B@64 kbps | 6 hrs 19 mins | 159 MB
    Narrator: Robert Lacey | Genre: Nonfiction/History

  • The Family Handyman – October 2002 (Repost)

    The Family Handyman – October 2002
    English | PDF | 71 pages | 14.57 Mb

  • Microsoft Windows Server 2012 R2 Update 1 AIO German

    Microsoft Windows Server 2012 R2 Update 1 AIO German | 5.10 GB

    Windows Server 2012 R2 verfügt über eine große Auswahl an neuen und verbesserten Features und Funktionen, die Servervirtualisierung, Speicher, softwaredefinierte Netzwerke, Serververwaltung und -automatisierung, Web- und Anwendungsplattformen, Zugriff- und Datenschutz, virtuelle Desktopinfrastruktur und mehr umfassen.

  • Inside the Box: A Proven System of Creativity for Breakthrough Results (repost)

    Inside the Box: A Proven System of Creativity for Breakthrough Results by Drew Boyd and Jacob Goldenberg
    English | 2013 | ISBN: 1451659253 | ISBN-13: 9781451659252 | 272 pages | EPUB | 6,9 MB

    Want to be creative? Then think Inside the Box. The traditional view says that creativity is unstructured and doesn’t follow rules or patterns. That you need to think “outside the box” to be truly original and innovative. That you should start with a problem and then “brainstorm” ideas without restraint until you find a solution.

  • An Assessment of the Global Impact of the Financial Crisis (repost)

    An Assessment of the Global Impact of the Financial Crisis by Philip Arestis, Rogrio Sobreira and Jos Luis Oreiro
    English | ISBN: 023027160X | 2011 | PDF | 287 pages | 2,3 MB

    This topical volume analyzes the impact of the 2008 financial crisis. It considers the origins and explanations of the current crisis, examines the regulatory implications and, with specific focus on developing countries, it provides a strategy for economic growth that can guarantee financial stability in the future.

  • How to Get Into the Top MBA Programs, 5th Edition (repost)

    Richard Montauk, "How to Get Into the Top MBA Programs, 5th Edition"
    English | 2010 | ISBN: 0735204500 | 640 pages | epub | 2,5 MB

    Surefire Strategies for Getting Into the Top MBA Programs
    Now with new and expanded information on international MBA programs, comprehensive rankings of the leading schools, and new interviews with admissions officers, How to Get Into the Top MBA Programs provides a complete overview of what the top schools look for.

  • Marketing Information Products and Services: A Primer for Librarians and Information Professionals (repost)

    Marketing Information Products and Services: A Primer for Librarians and Information Professionals by Abhinandan K. Jain, Ashok Jambhekar, T.P. Rama Rao, S. Sreenivas Rao
    English | March 2000 | ISBN: 0889368171 | 480 pages | PDF | 26,5 MB

    Library and information sciences are experiencing a period of radical change. Today, just as businesses must compete for survival, growth, and market space, librarians and information professionals must assume a more proactive role to cope with increasing competition.

  • Long-Term Factors in American Economic Growth (repost)

    Long-Term Factors in American Economic Growth (Studies in Income and Wealth) by Stanley L. Engerman and Robert E. Gallman
    English | ISBN: 0226209288 | 1987 | PDF | 884 pages | 57,6 mb

    These classic studies of the history of economic change in 19th- and 20th-century United States, Canada, and British West Indies examine national product; capital stock and wealth; and fertility, health, and mortality. "A 'must have' in the library of the serious economic historian.

  • FileMaker Pro 13 Advanced 13.0.4.418

    FileMaker Pro 13 Advanced 13.0.4.418 Multilingual | 351.8 MB

    FileMaker Pro 13 Advanced includes all of the features of FileMaker Pro 13 plus a suite of advanced development and customization tools. Customize menus with just the items you want. Plus, get robust analysis capabilities, powerful debugging tools and much more – all designed to help you build more powerful, more flexible and more customized databases faster.

  • Командная строка Linux и сценарии оболочки

    Командная строка Linux и сценарии оболочки – Блум Р., Бреснахэн К.
    2012 | ISBN: 5845917808 | 2-е изд | PDF | 784 pages | 23 Mb

    В этой книге вы найдете все, что необходимо для освоения строковых команд и сценариев командных интерпретаторов Linux новичками и даже опытными разработчиками. Широким набором команд и средств упрощения работы, которые нелегко обнаружить самостоятельно во многих дистрибутивах Linux с интерфейсом рабочего стола, сумеют воспользоваться даже те пользователи, которые применяют систему Linux в собственных интересах.

  • Hittite Warrior (Warrior 120) (Repost)

    Trevor Bryce, Adam Hook – Hittite Warrior
    Osprey Publishing | 2007 | ISBN: 1846030811, 9781846030819 | English | 70 pages | PDF | 23.23 MB
    Warrior 120

  • FileMaker Server 13 Advanced 13.0.5.520

    FileMaker Server 13 Advanced 13.0.5.520 Multilingual | 246.2 MB

    FileMaker Server is fast, reliable server software for managing and sharing database solutions created using FileMaker Pro (separate purchase is required) and extending solutions to the web. Groups both small and large are able to simultaneously access the most up-to-date information, making them more productive than ever.

  • Tie Me Up! Tie Me Down! / Átame! (1989)

    Tie Me Up! Tie Me Down! / Átame! (1989)
    Spanish | BRRip | MKV | AVC, 2300 Kbps | 1024×552 | 24.000 fps | 1.75 GB
    Audio: AC-3, 192 Kbps | 2 channels | 48.0 KHz | Runtime: 01:40:34 minutes | Subtitle: English (embedded)
    Genre: Comedy | Crime | Drama

    Ricky is released from a mental hospital, and knows exactly what he wants to do. He hunts down Marina, a porn film star he once had sex with, and tries to convince her to be his wife. She is a bit reluctant, so he ties her up. Will this approach endear him to her?

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